Details OF Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Generation Solar Power System
Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Generation Solar Power System
- The Efficient Solar House (CSE) is a prefabricated house with its need for electric power fully supplied by solar and wind energy sources.
- The electric power generation system (SGEE) of the house consists of two arrays of photovoltaic modules of polycrystalline silicon (p-Si),
- one fixed and one mobile with the solar tracking system, adding a power of approximately 1990 watt peak (Wp) and a 1 kW wind turbine
The Solar House’s electrical system has the following general characteristics:
- Photovoltaic Arrangement: 1993 Wp
- Battery Bank: 750Ah / 48Vcc (20 units)
- Inverter: 48Vdc / 120Vac / 60Hz-4kW
- Autonomy: 72 hours
- Projected consumption: 7.4 kWh / day
- Annual Average: 4.75 – 5.25 kWh / m2.day
- The fixed photovoltaic panel, installed on the balcony roof, is composed of a total of 32 photovoltaic modules.
- The modules are grouped in serial connections of four modules each, achieving a voltage of 48 Volts DC (direct current).
- The fixed PV array has a total power of 1450 Wp.
- The tracker photovoltaic panel, mounted in front of the Solar House, has a structure that accompanies the movement of the sun throughout the day (East-West).
- It consists of 12 photovoltaic modules connected in series groups of four modules each (48 Volts DC in each group) associated in parallel.
- The photovoltaic panel tracker has a total power of 540 Wp.
- The solar tracking system of the structure is a passive system, which operates on the basis of the displacement of a gas between two hollow arms located on opposite sides of the structure.
- Depending on the position of the sun one of the arms will be warmer than the other, causing the expansion of the gas that will move to the armless heated.
- With the movement of the sun, this process of unbalance is occurring by the gradual displacement of the gas causing the whole structure to accompany the solar movement.
- The movement of the structure is such that the incidence of the sun is always perpendicular to the plane of the panel, favoring the use of solar energy.
- The gain of solar irradiation of this mobile structure with solar tracking is of the order of 15 to 20% when compared to the fixed installation of the photovoltaic modules.
- The voltage generated by the photovoltaic system is 48 Volts, in direct current (DC).
- Since all the equipment used in the Solar House operates on alternating current (AC), a voltage inverter is used that will convert DC to AC.
- The most used materials in the manufacture of photovoltaic cells are:
- (a) silicon (mono-Si),
- (b) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)
- (c) Amorphous silicon (a-Si).
- The best efficiency in the transformation of solar energy into electricity is obtained with silicon cells (of the order of 18%), unfortunately, the most expensive ones.
- Polycrystalline silicon cells have yields of the order of 16% and are cheaper than previous ones due to the lower energy required for their manufacture and better use of the material.
- Amorphous silicon cells are the cheapest but their yield is still low (of the order of 10%).
- Photovoltaic cells are connected in series-parallel sets composing photovoltaic modules of various powers and voltages.
- Photovoltaic modules are still expensive, making the energy obtained by them, for now, more expensive than that obtained by hydraulic or even thermoelectric sources.
- CEPEL, working with the support of PRODEEM, has already installed hundreds of systems in communities of this type with excellent results.